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In recent decades, rather than acquiring more fossil fuels, we have to some degree squeezed more mileage for our vehicles and heat for our homes per unit of fuel input by increasing the efficiency of cars and furnaces a response to the energy crisis of the 's suggested by Lovins in Historically, for heating, wood became scarce and expensive.

We moved to coal and successively to oil and to natural gas. In the human economic world, normally innovations which increase efficiency or change niches require some investment in research and development. The necessary innovations were simply not previously available in the population. Similarly, its success is not guaranteed; much of the investment goes for nought, but successes often make it worthwhile.

That does not mean however that economic change is not an evolutionary process. For example, Nelson and Winter and Nelson include search processes, including for information, in their evolutionary model of economic change. It hardly needs to be said that there is nothing "Lamarckian" about the phenomenon of adaptive mutation. Even if somewhat , although obviously never perfectly directed e. In eukaryotes, the logic of the evolution of such genes would be similar to that of genes for recombination i.

In a narrower sense however, it seems likely that, as well as favouring investing in the first "2M's", stalled progress should favour a 3 rd M -- mutability, i. Given that growth strategies do normally have direct ecological consequences in the form of depletion and degradation, it is not surprising that members of some populations, instead of evolving in response to density, evolve in direct response to the strategies present in the population, i.

Rather than ecological optimization in the narrow sense, the principle is the game-theory one of negative frequency dependence. This negative frequency-dependent principle is to avoid competition. However, negative frequency dependence can be added to, rather than simply substituted for, density dependence. Under the simplest set of assumptions, at equal costs, pure density dependence predicts strategies should be present in proportion to density.

These range from all growth at one extreme, through equal frequencies at intermediate densities, to all one or more of the 3M's at the other extreme. At equal costs, pure frequency dependence predicts the two should always be present at equal frequencies. At equal costs, combined density and frequency dependence still predicts equal frequencies at intermediate densities, but other equilibria are possible. In short, in science as in life, selection should be sensitive not only to the ecological environment but also to the social environment in the sense of what strategies others are pursuing.

Resources may be devoted to doing research rapidly but for a shorter period of time in a field, yielding a higher rate mass per unit time, so to speak of knowledge. Alternatively, resources may be devoted to doing research at a slower rate but for longer yielding knowledge over a longer time period. Biologically but not sociologically , trade-offs between growth rate and time are well known.

Mammals that develop more rapidly by many criteria lead faster, but shorter lives. More familiar sociologically is the spatial equivalent. Resources may be devoted to doing research more intensively but in a smaller area of a field, yielding a higher mass per unit area of knowledge so to speak i. Alternatively, resources may be devoted to doing research less intensively but spanning a larger area i. Similar distinctions apply to teaching. Students with graduate degrees may be produced at short "interbirth" intervals or alternatively, at a slower rate but for longer. They may be produced in a single topic or alternatively, teaching effort may be spread more thinly but broadly across a wider range of topics.

It was once thought that spatiotemporal properties of organisms including lifespan and size could be attributed to density. Now it seems obvious that they should instead be attributed to environmental scale. Moreover there is a correlation between spatial and temporal strategies so that smaller organisms e. The reason for such correlations is not obvious. To attribute them to ecology simply moves the need for an explanation one step back. They may be attributable to cytoplasmic and other nongenetic forms of inheritance or to genetic correlations as follows.

Working rapidly and by analogy intensively is expensive in energy, i. Working more slowly, for longer may be more expensive in enzymes tools , building blocks inventories of supplies , ribosomes protein factories , and mRNA managerial knowledge and expertise -- all in theoretical economics, roughly capital. Or to choose a technological analogy, Formula 1 racing cars are basically portable gas tanks and small in area or volume while vehicles that compete in long distance rallies carry tools, spare parts, repair manuals and so on and are larger.

In short, it may not just take a long time to grow large as has often been thought. It may also require a large area or volume to store all the things required to keep going for a long time. Hence organisms that cytoplasmically inherit more ATP or mitochondria themselves may have a material comparative advantage for both rapid growth and intense specialization. Those that inherit more "capital" may have such an advantage for both longer, slower growth and generalization. Alternatively, the preadaptations may be genetic in which genes for the former complement and mutually favour each other while genes for the latter do the same.

As is well known, selection is not just ecologically-dependent, but also own condition-dependent including, but not exclusively, genetic condition. Examples of such contrasts and their correlations are easy to come by in the history of science. The broad scope of the former is well known. So too is the length of time it took to complete. The scope of Hull's book is also truly vast in it are woven together a treatment of most major issues in the philosophy of science, the sociology of science, and evolutionary theory.

According to the preface, his decision to study the systematics community sociologically was made in although he probably became convinced of the relevance of the kin-selection concept to the sociology of science even earlier. While much of the material in his book appeared previously in journal articles, the entire package was not published until 15 years later in If the reasons for such correlations are endogenous, it means that scientists need to assess not only the scale of opportunities available in the field in which they are working but also their own suitability for different strategies.

Are they personally more suited for fast, specialized races or for longer, slower work that is broader in scope? There exists some sentiment that contemporary science is missing out on opportunities for the acquisition of knowledge in the form of too much support for specialized, short-term projects and not enough for broader, longer-term projects.

However, in the past decade, there have been some moves in that direction. For example, Nature editorialized on the desirability of support for longer projects Maddox and published a commentary decrying the loss of breadth in scientific education and practice e. Greene The U. National Science Foundation moved toward longer, bigger grants around the same time Mervis The applied message here is the importance of adapting science and its funding to the opportunities available in a particular field and to the different kinds of comparative advantage possessed by researchers rather than the intrinsic superiority of one strategy over the other.

And of course evolutionary and ecological interactions and frequency dependence may obtain with scale-dependent strategies just as they can with density-dependent strategies. Fast specialists deplete small-scale resources but may give large-scale ones an opportunity to recover and vice-versa. If some are or are mainly, fast specialists, then it can pay others to be longer, slower generalists and vice-versa. Scientists who are highly specialized and work rapidly in their research and teaching may hit the jackpot, but more commonly they come up empty-handed -- the variance in outcomes should be high.

Not surprisingly given the emphasis on specialized, short-term research, there is some evidence that error rates in the published literature have been increasing since the early 's Hawkins Choosing exactly what to specialize in and when to exhaust resources in working at high speed is a risky business. Generalists who work more slowly but for longer may be less likely to make a revolutionary discovery, but they should also be less likely to come up empty-handed.

The variance in outcomes should be lower.

Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies (2001)

It has long been known that development is a process not only of growth but also of morphological, physiological and behavioural change and differentiation. In individual development, life cycles pass through a sequence of stages and different kinds of cells, tissues and organs emerge, becoming different from each other -- processes largely achieved at the molecular genetic level through change and variation in control of gene expression.

At the opposite extreme, on an evolutionary rather than a developmental scale, populations, species and higher taxa change and diverge from each other -- processes largely achieved through genetic change and variation. Between these, cyclical change can take place between generations in dual or even multi-generational life cycles common in the complex life cycles of many parasites , and different kinds of individuals can become different from each other morphs, genders, morphs within genders etc. Sometimes it is achieved through change and variation in control of gene activity. In many turtles and reptiles gender is phenotypically plastic.

Gender differences in many turtles and lizards are dependent upon environmental temperature.

Evolutionary Genetics: Concepts and Case Studies

Presumably the cost of flexibility must initially be traded off against growth, i. Just as with growth versus the 3M's, under the right conditions, the advantages are more than sufficient to compensate for these costs. Flexibility in scale that takes place both within differentiation and between plasticity individuals is illustrated by organisms with a branching architecture. Such architecture has evolved independently in organisms many times among the unicellular some algae , the multicellular some algae as well as fungi and plants , and the colonial.

Colonies of many marine invertebrates in which the individual elements are multicellular animals develop such an architecture. It is found even among colonies of eusocial insect colonies as in polygyne multiple queen fire ants Solenopsis invicta. Supercolonies of these insects spread in the American south in vast branching networks in which individual colonies, connected by underground tunnels, arise by a budding process Mann There is a large literature on possible evolutionary explanations of the growth habit and other features of branching organisms much of it on whether the function of branching relates to resources, antagonists or competitive interactions for a discussion and references see Buss and Blackstone Here, for convenience, we shall assume resources are at issue.

The simplest of such organisms may be viewed as being composed of what, for simplicity's sake, we shall call and "laterals" and "leaders". A branching architecture is correlated with sessility and as mentioned in Section 3 , where only laterals consume and hence the internal flow of resources is unidirectional, the function of leaders is to extend the organism's reach.

Leaders can function as a form of motility in sessile organisms Andrews, Often however, both laterals and leaders consume as in a fungal hypha; hence the internal flow of resources is bi-directional. Assuming equal profitability at equilibrium, the normally shorter laterals must be consuming a higher mass per unit area or volume and presumably more rapidly , i.

The normally longer leaders must be consuming resources through a larger area or volume of space and presumably for longer , i. Despite the mixed nature of their strategy, individuals and populations do not necessarily devote equal resources to the two. If laterals arise frequently, which in turn, functioning as leaders, also give rise to their own laterals frequently the overall effect is a short but dense, bushy structure, a pattern long called "phalanx" like. Conversely, if leader s only give rise to laterals infrequently, which in turn, functioning as leaders, also only give rise to their own laterals infrequently, the overall effect is a long but sparse, tree-like structure, a pattern long called "guerrilla" like.

Hence the same character can exhibit both kinds of flexibility -- differentiation within and plasticity between individuals. Branching organisms are often constructed modularly whether somatically, reproductively, or both whether severally or jointly. Somatic modules commonly arise from buds in the upper axes between laterals and leaders.

These are a physical manifestation of resources invested in differentiation. They give rise to both leaders and laterals; they permit environmental exploitation to take place on more than one scale. The parallel in science is clear. In heterogeneous environments, scientists can be called upon to not confine themselves to a single strategy. They may be required to pay the set-up costs of varying and changing among strategies -- working on one project in one way and another in another way. At various times and places they may be required to engage in both primary and secondary research, in primary research and changing topics or fields, in being conformist and heretical, in working as a fast specialist and as a longer slower generalist -- even if there is likely to be an over-all emphasis on one or the other.

Not only are such mixed strategies possible, in fields in which opportunities are available on more than one scale, such flexibility lies at the very heart of the scientific process. Scientists commonly describe what they do in their research as reasoning from the specific to the general and from the general to the specific and importantly, believe that each complements the other. Philosophers are more inclined to talk of induction and deduction, or in more modern terminology observation and theory, with explanations emerging from their interaction Kosso Such a formulation is consistent with what is observed in nature.

Resources spent on maximizing the acquisition of specialized knowledge rapidly may yield a return which can be invested in the acquisition of general knowledge, over a long period of time. Science can proceed from the specific to the general and from the short to the long run. Equally, resources spent on the acquisition of general knowledge over a long period of time may yield a return that can be invested in the acquisition of specific knowledge, rapidly. Science can proceed from the general to the specific, and from the long to the short run.

Commonly philosophers argue that for circularity to be avoided in the scientific process, observations that nourish a particular theory should be independent of those used to confirm it. Hull builds his evolutionary sociology of science from a series of narratives about the history of biology and then tests it against evidence from the contemporary systematics community. Because observation is "theory laden" the requirement may be put differently: the theory used to support particular observations should be independent of the theory for which the observations serve as evidence Kosso , However it is put, branching organisms proceed in such a manner.

Hence laterals that nourish a particular leader are distinct from the laterals that the leader subsequently supports. The part of a leader that supports particular laterals is distinct from the part of the leader that the laterals subsequently nourish. Science, like branching growth, is an iterative process. In highly developed sciences, developing new subtopics or specialties modules capable of giving rise to both is one of the most valuable activities of all. For heuristic purposes I slipped from scientists' "reasoning from the particular to the general and from the general to the particular" to philosophers' induction and deduction or observation and theory.

I emphasize however that the original terminology more adequately expresses the evolutionary-ecological strategy distinction drawn here. Plasticity, for instance, was not connected to hybridization, mutation, genetic drift, or gene flow, and was poorly connected to genetic diversity. Similarly, few studies explicitly addressed both deterministic and stochastic population differentiation at the same time. Human influence on Poaceae invasion was largely studied in an ecological context. However, its evolutionary consequences were recently addressed Larson ; Bock et al. Some particularities may be expected from the Poaceae case study compared with the same matrix performed without family restriction.

For example, biologic characteristics of this family, such as the reproductive system, might influence some of the observed patterns. Wind-pollination may decrease the importance of biotic interactions in Poaceae relative to plant families that rely more heavily on insect-mediated pollination.

Conversely, some research topics might be over-represented in this invasive grass example. For instance, we might expect human influence to be prominent in this analysis because fire is often associated with grass invasion Brooks et al. Similarly, the connections with hybridization concepts may result from the relatively important research effort on Spartina , an extensively hybridizing genus Ainouche et al. Identified gaps corresponded to connections not documented by any study, i.

Evolution: It's a Thing - Crash Course Biology #20

However, not all connections have the same biologic relevance. Even if all the potential interactions between the 18 concepts considered here were possible, some are less straightforward than others e. Each researcher in the ecology and evolution of invaders, depending on her or his particular interests, can find directions for new investigations among identified knowledge gaps, especially as a connection between two concepts can raise several questions.

We propose and discuss five questions raised by our results, which we believe represent promising opportunities to understand the relationships between ecological and evolutionary aspects in the success not only of Poaceae , but of most plant invaders. What is the importance of plasticity in an invader's response to human-induced disturbance? Despite important literature on the response of grasslands communities to fire regimes i. Providing quantitative data on the reaction norms of individual invaders for example in variable fire regimes is, however, of particular interest for understanding and forecasting the success of invasive plants Grace et al.

Using clones of individuals, experiments in which each genotype would be exposed to different treatments of human influence could be used to quantify the reaction norms of invaders in response to tillage, burning, etc. How do human activities affect gene flow in invading populations? Human activities profoundly affect ecosystems and metapopulation dynamics, which in turn may affect gene flow. For instance, wind-dispersed plant invaders have been shown to disperse preferentially along roads and railways Ernst ; Gelbard and Belnap Barochorous species have dispersal that is enhanced by agricultural practices Benvenuti , making gene flow attributable to human activities.

Many other human influences on gene migration among invading populations are possible. However, this has not been experimentally addressed for Poaceae invaders. What is the relationship between patterns of gene flow and the temporal dynamics of invasion?


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However, it is likely that the pattern of gene exchange among metapopulations is inherently dependant on invasion dynamics, especially when selection and gene flow have not reached equilibrium Sakai et al. For instance, it would be worth documenting the variation in gene flow at different stages of invasion. Early naturalization, rapid spatial spread and the subsequent slowing of an invasion because of a biotic barriers may rely on different metapopulation dynamics. In the case of multiple introductions, the spatial pattern of gene flow may be profoundly modified when several early stage, locally invaded areas become connected to create a much wider invasive range.

The temporal aspect of introduction also deserves further investigation in relation to its potential effect on gene flow. Indeed, patterns of gene flow, and in turn the potential for invasive populations to evolve, are likely to be affected by the period during which propagules are introduced from the native range. However, gene flow is a spatial and temporal process inherently difficult to characterize, and this is may explain the lack of empirical work on this topic. Such a study would require an analysis of gene flow patterns among populations using molecular markers over a sufficiently long period of time to encompass different stages of invasion.

In the case of invaders introduced to a few well-separated areas, such as Senecio inaequidens Ernst , it may be possible to characterize the gene flow among populations within one area before and after the convergence of these initially isolated invaded areas. Do polyploids have higher invasiveness in human-disturbed environments?

In addition, polyploids are thought to show higher resistance to environmental stresses Levin ; Bretagnolle et al. However, the extent to which polyploid invaders are facilitated by human disturbance is still poorly documented and no studies were found that experimentally addressed this question in exotic grasses. Experiments should be conducted to test for better performance of polyploids in human-influenced habitats, e.

Do epigenetic mechanisms allow invasive species to display increased phenotypic plasticity? Bossdorf et al.

Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies

Epigenetic processes may induce heritable phenotypic variation in ecologically relevant traits, without any contribution of genetic variation. The existence of such epigenetic contribution may be assessed through several approaches, including the use of study systems lacking genetic variation. Beyond using genetically uniform organisms as a tool, one could also consider the consequences of such a link between epigenetics and phenotypic plasticity specifically for invasive species. Severe genetic bottlenecks are reported in invasive plants after introduction e.

Dlugosch and Parker Because of the absence of genetic variation, species displaying uniparental reproduction selfing, clonal propagation, and apomixis are particularly susceptible to genetic drift Barrett et al. In this context, the contribution of epigenetic processes to increased phenotypic diversity is particularly pertinent, as it might explain the broad ecological range of such invasive species. Common-garden experiments, potentially involving contrasting soil conditions, may be able to demonstrate heritable phenotypic variation in such uniparentally reproducing species.

Studies synthesizing the impacts of multiple factors have been increasingly recognized as vital to the understanding of biologic invasions Lambrinos ; Hastings et al. Network analysis represents an innovative method for visualizing the current state of research, enabling scientists to identify knowledge gaps among disciplines.

As shown in our application example, input matrices can be easily obtained thanks to current bibliographic tools such as online databases. Several software programs can be used for graphic visualization of networks Huisman and Van Duijn This is an important step if one aims to detect gaps among a concept list established a priori. However, the strong correlation we found between raw and refined matrices suggests that this step is not necessary to generate a general picture of the research, expanding the applicability of the method for simple visualization.

In the case of evolution and ecology, the concepts delimited in the present article provide a foundation for further investigation. However, definition of these concepts is an inherent limitation to our method, as it is impossible to avoid subjectivity entirely. Quantitative studies are always difficult to apply to qualitative concepts, and problems like ambiguity or concept overlap are inherent. Nevertheless, this can be as much an advantage as a drawback. Concepts can be defined ad hoc for a specific system or research interest, and can be based on consensus among a given group of experts.

Another possible approach is to use text-mining methods. In the past two decades such methods have become very sophisticated, particularly in their application to the medical and molecular biologic literature Krallinger et al. Two important features of advanced text mining are the extraction of semantic information and the use of automation over manual methods.

As opposed to our a priori approach based on knowledge of the discipline, extraction of semantic information present in the publication analyzed would allow the discovery of words most closely associated with different concepts and most likely to be used in publications that combined concepts. The use of automation over manual methods would also allow the analysis of much larger databases.

However, as no algorithm could replace a comprehensive reading by an expert, such methods cannot completely avoid irrelevant co-occurrences of concepts. In the future, both approaches could be valuable in completely characterizing the research structure and semantic patterns in ecology and evolution of invasive plants. The visualization approach developed here must be seen as complementary to literature reviews. In review articles, the information within empirical studies is summarized so that general trends in data can emerge.

In our case, the goal was not to stress general trends in the results, but trends in the research effort — that is, the number of studies addressing a particular combination of concepts. However, network analysis could also be applied to reviews and meta-analyzes, notably by assigning directions and signs to edges. Conversely, meta-analytical methods could be applied to network analysis to reduce subjectivity and improve accuracy Arnqvist and Wooster Both approaches are complementary, and further investigation should be made to assess the utility of a combined approach.

The network presented in this study reveals the amount of primary research, in terms of publications, devoted to connecting concepts. Network structure is defined by many factors in addition to the a priori parameters described above. In addition to the biologic relevance of the connections, the interests of specific research teams and the funding available in various sub-disciplines are likely to influence connection architecture and strength.

The costs associated with different areas of research can also be inherently different, influencing the number of resulting publications. Also, the number and relevance of journals devoted to sub-disciplines can have a profound influence on the publications of results connecting concepts. In addition, network analysis may be impacted by the underrepresentation in the literature of integrative studies that were carried out, but whose results were never published perhaps because of negative results.

Including a relevance index e. Another possible improvement is the inclusion of a chronological dimension to the network by weighting each included study by its publication year. Including a temporal analysis of the research structure among ecological and evolutionary concepts, as well as applying our method to both invasive and native plants, may represent the most promising perspectives of the present work.

Invasive species may be highly detrimental, but they nonetheless present superb research opportunities to evolutionary biologists Lee ; Callaway and Maron One wonders whether invasive species will lead the way for evolutionary and ecological studies, with fundamental research carried out on invasive plant models before natives. Comparing the knowledge gaps between i the literature about invasive plants and ii the whole or a subset of the literature about plant evolution and ecology would help show whether invasive species research follows or leads the scientific effort to understand the ecology and evolution of plants.

This study demonstrated a possible use of network analysis in biologic invasion science to quantify the research effort devoted to connecting a series of important concepts, defined a priori , in plant ecology and evolution. Applied to one of the most studied and most invasive plant families, Poaceae , the method presented here has demonstrated a greater connection between ecological concepts than evolutionary concepts in the literature.

An important heterogeneity among connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in invasive grass research was found. Some connections were commonly addressed in the primary research, whereas others were largely unexplored. The concepts of human influence, gene flow, epigenetics and plasticity were among the connections identified as knowledge gaps.

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This application of network theory should bring further insights for integrative research into the ecology and evolution of invasive species. This research was supported by the project FRFC 2. Arnaud Monty holds a doctoral grant from the F. Sonia Vanderhoeven has a postdoctoral position at the F. The authors are very grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions helping to improve the manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Evol Appl v. Evol Appl. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 1; Accepted Dec 2. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions.

This book provides an introduction to a range of fundamental questions that have taxed evolutionary biologists and ecologists for decades. Some of the phenomena discussed are, on first reflection, simply puzzling to understand from an evolutionary perspective, whilst others have direct implications for the future of the planet. All of the questions posed have at least a partial solution, all have seen exciting breakthroughs in recent years, yet many of the explanations continue to be hotly debated.

Big Questions in Ecology and Evolution is a curiosity-driven book, written in an accessible way so as to appeal to a broad audience. It is very deliberately not a formal text book, but something designed to transmit the excitement and breadth of the field by discussing a number of major questions in ecology and evolution and how they have been answered.

This is a book aimed at informing and inspiring anybody with an interest in ecology and evolution. It reveals to the reader the immense scope of the field, its fundamental importance, and the exciting breakthroughs that have been made in recent years. The butterflyfishes: success on the coral reef.

Book 9. Butterflyfishes of the family Chaetodontidae are conspicuous members of almost all tropical reefs. These colorful fishes have attracted a great deal of attention from both the scientific community and especially the aquarium fish industry. At first one is tempted to say that butterflyfishes are abundant worldwide, but the evidence does not support this statement. The biomass of chaetodontids on reefs may range from 0. Yet in spite of these relatively small numbers they have been extensively studied.

Along with the cichlids and damselfishes they might be one of the most studied and well published family of tropical fishes. Why then have chaetodontids attracted so much attention? The butterflyfishes are mostly shallow water inhabitants that are approachable and easily recognizable, making their study very feasible.

Their bright coloration has provoked many hypotheses but has posed more questions about coloration than it has provided answers. And despite their apparent overall morphological similarity, their highly structured and varied social systems have made them an ideal model for such studies. The reasons for choosing these organisms are indeed as diverse as the studies themselves.

Book The main themes of the symposium were Migrations and Dispersal of Marine Organisms. These themes are highly relevant today. There is widespread man-aided dispersal e. The new introductions may result in reduced diversity of plants and animals and may affect natural resources in the countries receiving toxic algae and other foreign elements.

Studies of changes in distribution and dispersal of marine animals and plants are also highly relevant with reference to the changing climate taking place. The study of dispersal has recently gained new impetus with the discovery of the remarkable communities found on isolated hydrothermal vents and cold water seeps in the world's oceans.

This book should appeal to a broad group of biologists, and especially marine ecologists. Four papers are based on keynote addresses, given by world authorities in their respective fields, on the state of the art of different important aspects of dispersal and migrations. These are followed by papers covering a wide field, from the rafting of macrobenthic animals on human debris, the spread of the Chinese mitten crap in Europe, the migrations of diatoms, and the seasonal movements of copepods, to mention but a few.

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  • Douglas Futuyma. This new volume in the OSEB series presents reviews of key theoretical ideas and frameworks, and outlines progress in evolutionary studies. The present text compiles the latest research within the field of biology performed in the Baltic Sea area. The themes span from theoretical and philosophical aspects of the ecosystem concept over population and autecological studies to detailed descriptions of plant and animal physiology. Results from microcosm and mesocosm experiments as well as direct observations in field together bring insight of the special structure and function of the Baltic Sea ecosystem.

    How the spawning success of cod and spat are dependent of each other and environmental factors, the impact of alien species to the composition of plankton or benthic communities, the flip of phytobenthic to planktonic communities in lagoons and mechanisms triggering the change, pure descriptions of e. Similar ebooks.