You would be happy that how much you could save by doing book price comparison. Our goal is to find the cheapest books and college textbooks for you, both new and used books, from a large number of bookstores worldwide. More bookstores from other countries will be added soon. Before buying from a foreign book store or book shop, be sure to check the shipping options. It's not unusual that shipping could take 2 -3 weeks and cost could be multiple of a domestic shipping charge. Buying used books and used textbooks is becoming more and more popular among college students for saving.
Different second hand books could have different conditions.
Be sure check used book condition from the seller's description. This is so unique that it places the biblical Creation account within a different conceptual paradigm as compared to any other creation narrative. In the context of Ancient Near Eastern theogonies and cosmogonies, the biblical Creation narrative is an exquisite anomaly.
To the question, What was there before Creation? This carries with it some important theological and cosmogonic implications. First, the similarities between the biblical Creation account and those from the Ancient Near East are mainly superficial. The new biblical paradigm excludes any derivation of the biblical view of creation from Ancient Near Eastern sources and would consider such a derivation to be an attempt to force upon the biblical text what is foreign to it. Scholars are now more careful when seeking to identify Ancient Near Eastern influences on the biblical writer.
Second, in contraposition to the idea that the cosmos is the result of the coming into being of God and everything else—surprisingly similar to process theology—the biblical text does not know anything about a cosmos that is the result of the self-evolving of God or that is emerging from within God. There is a beginning, but it is a beginning of creation—not of God. Creation is about a divine function and not about divine ontology.
It is probably this biblical conviction that has contributed to the development of science in the Christian world. In biblical theology, Creation is desacralized and it is, therefore, open for human study and analysis. Third, since creation is not the result of a God who is evolving, the cosmos does not come into existence through inner struggles. Creation out of chaos, according to which God had to struggle with primeval forces of disorder to establish order and harmony, is not present in the biblical Creation narrative. The singularity of the Creator God does not allow for any other cosmogony.
The biblical text makes another exclusive claim: The life we experience, enjoy, and see on Earth is not an extension of the divine life but a mode of life created by God and therefore essentially different from His. To communicate this idea, the biblical text describes Creation as taking place through the divine word. Creation as the self-development of God or as divine procreation is replaced by creation through the word of God and the breath of life. Through His speech, God brings into existence light Gen.
All this happens through the divine command. The raw materials do not have the power to realize themselves. This power comes from outside the sphere of the raw materials and reaches them through the divine word. Life is created in the same way. The flora comes into existence from within creation itself but not through the power of natural forces.
The idea is that the barren land is unable to produce grass and trees by itself; it needs to hear the voice of the Lord commanding grass and trees to come into existence all over the ground. The word of God mediates the creation of such life and at the same time establishes the way things will continue to be. The perpetuation of grass and trees is possible because the Creator established it that way.
God created fish to teem in the waters and birds to fly in the sky Gen. Fish do not sprout out of the water by themselves but, like the birds, are created to live within a particular habitat. It is through the divine command that this takes place and not as the result of the intrinsic power of nature.
This is life created through the divine word. This does not mean that the earth participated in the creation of animals or that it had the potential to produce animals. It is only the divine command that creates the animals out of the earth. The text does not say that God gave them His breath of life but that He breathed into them the breath of life. This is God creating human life.
In the biblical narrative, life does not create itself at any stage in the process of coming into being. Its origin remains hidden in the mystery of the divine act of creation. Once created, life is empowered by the Creator to perpetuate itself through procreation. This is based on the creation of gender differentiation and, therefore, it is a potential that is part of life itself and that humans can explore and understand. The biblical text implicitly rejects the idea that the diversification of life was the result of a self-created life evolving or developing into a multiplicity of forms.
The biblical paradigm depicts a God who effortlessly creates life in its different forms, thus excluding the development of one form of life into a different one. Each creation of life is described in the text as an event in itself, and that particular life does not evolve or develop in any way into the creation of other forms of life. This is an amazing thought in the context of Ancient Near Eastern creation stories.
The only thing that provides coherence and unity to the different expressions of life in the biblical Creation narrative is the fact that there is only one Creator. Ancient Near Eastern creation accounts do not date the moment of creation. They, like the Bible, speak about a beginning that includes the creation of time. As noted earlier, Egyptian cosmogonies make reference to millions of years running from creation to de-creation, and perhaps in that sense it would be possible to introduce some notion of deep time. In natural evolution, deep time is the creator that brings into being the cosmos and all forms of life found on this planet.
Such ideas contrast in significant ways with the information provided by the biblical text in which a chronology of millions of years and the existence of a god of time are unknown. This does not mean that the biblical creation narrative is not interested in time. As a matter of fact, there is throughout the narrative a significant amount of emphasis on time and its direct connection to the origin of life on the planet, but time is not raised to the status of creator.
Time is created by God to frame His creative acts; it is under His rule. When it comes to the creation of life on the planet, deep time is totally absent from the text.
- In This Article!
- Stay Connected to PD.
- Violence in the Old Testament.
- A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles, Volume 1: Preliminary lntroduction and Commentary on Acts I-XIV (International Critical Commentary)!
- Updated Publications List.
- Winds Quarterly.
- Related Content;
Everything takes place in a week Ex. This particular biblical emphasis on time excludes the Ancient Near Eastern idea of the self-development of undifferentiated divine essence into millions by means of time. The biblical Creation narrative distances itself from Ancient Near Eastern representation of human origins by emphasizing the uniqueness of the creation of humans and the essential differences between humans and animals.
Although some similarities can be detected, they are placed at the service of different ideologies. It is obvious that the primeval human, who in Ancient Near Eastern texts looked and behaved like an animal, is totally absent from the biblical text.
Creation and Role of Humans. The uniqueness of humans is emphasized in the biblical text by describing their true nature and role within the created world. The general tendency in Ancient Near Eastern texts is to undermine the value and uniqueness of human life and existence. The most common reason for the creation of humans in the Sumerian and Babylonian narratives lacks any interest in the self-value of humans.
They were created as a result of the selfish concerns of a group of small deities who rebelled against working for the major deities. From his blood he formed mankind. He imposed on him service for the gods and thus freed them. Humans were the servants of the gods. The image was not something that through time they were able to develop, but something granted to them as a gift when they were created on the sixth day of the creation week. As made in His image, humans were to represent Him to the rest of the created world In contrast to the biblical depiction of humans, Ancient Near Eastern incipient evolutionary ideas devalued humankind.
Animals and Humans. In contrast to the Ancient Near Eastern tendency to blur any distinction between humans and animals during primeval times, the biblical text emphasizes the differences between them. This is effected in different ways.
Second, in the biblical account animals and humans come into existence in different ways. At the command of God, animals and birds are created or formed from the earth vs. The situation is different in Ancient Near Eastern texts. This is a case in which the origin of animals is somewhat similar to the biblical narrative.
In both cases, all types of animals are created by bringing them out of the earth. In the case of the Sumerian text, this happens through the cosmic marriage—an idea totally absent from biblical cosmogony. The creation of humans is alluded to in the text the gods fashioned humans , but no details are given. In this text, the creation of humans is also related to the cosmic marriage and could be described as the emergence of humans:. When the two texts are compared, it is clear that no distinction is made between the way humans and animals were created.
The singularity of humankind at the moment of its origin is not emphasized at all. A second important distinction between humans and animals is found in the diet assigned to them Gen. This will become a major point of dispute between the woman and the serpent, one of the beasts of the field. It is the implication of the statement that is important. Therefore, the topic of discussion presented by the serpent is about food. It is about what God assigned humans to eat.
It is a little strange that the enemy would use this line of argumentation to initiate the conversation.
Hebrews and Second Temple Jewish Traditions on the Origins of Angels
But the topic of food is an important one in the Creation narrative. In Genesis, God is the one who determines what His creatures should eat Gen. Diet set humanity apart from the animal world and constituted part of the order of Creation. They, like the rest of the animal world, were vegetarians. This is an important marker of differentiation.
The emphasis in Genesis 2 was on the fruit of the trees as part of human diet. By suggesting that humans should not eat from the trees of the garden, the enemy may have been trying to alter or weaken the dietary boundary that contributed to the differentiation of humans from animals.
One wonders whether the insinuation was that humans and animals basically belong to the same category of creatures—they were both to eat green plants. If that were the case, the serpent was attempting to bring Eve to its own level of existence. What was at stake was the conception of humans as the image of God. This appears to be what the serpent is attempting to introduce in the biblical narrative. By devaluing humans, the serpent forces Eve to react, to defend herself, and consequently she becomes more vulnerable.
The rejection of this apparent attempt to group humans and animals together, indispensable in evolutionary thinking, deconstructed some Ancient Near Eastern anthropogonies.
Self-evolving of Humans. The idea that it is possible for humans to evolve from one level of existence to a higher one is found in Genesis, but it is not endorsed by the biblical writer. It is placed in the lips of the serpent after Creation week. It is introduced in the narrative as an alternative to the divine plan for humans, and unfortunately, it captured their imagination. This represented a new worldview that was offered to humans by the serpent. According to it, humans had the potential within themselves to evolve into something unimaginable; they could be by themselves immortal and totally independent from God Gen.
They could leave behind their previous mode of existence and evolve or self-develop into a divine mode of existence. The biblical text rejects this worldview by describing the negative results of embracing it. Instead of progress, humans were significantly dehumanized and unable to properly relate to one another and to God. Creation in the Biblical Traditions Richard J. Clifford, John J. Collins Dec - Catholic Biblical Association This book brings together a series of informative essays on the theme of Creation in various Biblical traditions.
Augustine confesses that when he was writing his commentary on the psalms he "put off the th Psalm" not only because of its length, but because "the psalm does not even seem to need an expositor. The task of this book is to discern what the tabernacle, rather than the temple, meant to early Christians, and why they used tabernacle imagery as they did.
The Lord of the East Wind (The Catholic Biblical Quarterly. Monograph…
The results of this study are intended to contribute to a clearer understanding of a number of important NT texts and to a broader discussion of early Christian Barre Mar - Catholic Biblical Association 2 Kings which details the events that led to the overthrow of Jehoram, king of Israel, and of Athaliah queen of Judah, is considered to be one of the finest examples of classical Hebrew narrative. This work deals with the text's composition including the literary relationship of 2 Kgs 11 tro 2 Kgs , the literary dimensions of the work, and an appreciation of the artistic techniques that the author employed to convey Our investigation proceeds in five stages.
Endres Jan - Catholic Biblical Association This study of Jubilees Jacob traditions focuses on the author's redaction of biblical tradition in Genesis , especially the additions to and deletions from the tradition. The focal point is how he retold the story in keeping with his vision. Campbell Dec - Catholic Biblical Association This erudite book presents the evidence for an early document, extending from 1 Sam to 2 Kgs and deriving from northern prophetic circles toward the end of the ninth century B. This book also considers its significance and some of the consequences which derive from it.
VanderKam Apr - Catholic Biblical Association VanderKam carries further an investigation of the relation between wisdom and apocalypse. He shows that not simply wisdom, but mantic wisdom has informed the authors of 1 Enoch , VanderKam affirms the basic correctness of each researcher but sees in their work shortcomings which his own study seeks to rectify.
Rich and Poor in the Shepherd of Hermas An Exegetical-Social Investigation Carolyn Osiek Nov - Catholic Biblical Association The references to social differences in the Shepherd especially in the second Similitude and the tenth Mandate, suggest a social context in which traditional biblical values of attention to the poor are in tension with the behavior of the members of the church community to which the author belongs.
Rather than the usual judgement of the Shepherd as a treatise on early penitential discipline, it is in fact a window into the social relationships and Tobin May - Catholic Biblical Association This monograph, a revised form of a Harvard dissertation, is a study of Philo's interpretation of the creation of man in Genesis , and specifically in and Tobin approaches this study with two particular questions: 1 what were the exegetical traditions available to Philo and what were Philo's own developments and contributions?
It is the technique of interpolating material from some other part of the Septuagint, although usually from within Job itself, into the passage with which he is working. This is referred to as "anaphoric translation.
The Beginnings of Christian Philosophy The Epistle to the Hebrews James Thompson Feb - Catholic Biblical Association This monograph, which includes in unchanged or slightly revised form material which has previously appeared in theological journals and elsewhere, defends the thesis that the beginnings of Christian philosophy represented in the second century by Justin Martyr and Clement of Alexandria are found in the epistle to the Hebrews.
Christian philosophy, in this sense, involves the presentation of Christian teaching in the categories of classical philosophy. Temple Propaganda The Purpose and Character of 2 Maccabees Robert Doran Jul - Catholic Biblical Association This work first addresses the unity of 2 Maccabees, arguing that the epitome is a unified piece, separate from the prefixed letters. The author then explores the syntax and style of the epitome, noting rhetorical features and arguing that the work uses a nicety of syntax associated with classical, literary writers. The analysis of the narrative reveals a three-fold structure: a 2 Maccabees 3 — the attack of Heliodorus; b 2 Macc — — the profanation of the temple and Melchizedek and Melchiresa Paul J.
The commentary focuses on establishing the reading of the texts and restorations made on the basis of parallel biblical passages and other writings among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Part II examines the role of the heavenly Melchizedek in the Qumran Attridge, Robert A. Oden, Jr. Apr - Catholic Biblical Association Philo of Byblos in the early Roman imperial period claimed to have translated the work of an ancient author Sanchuniathon who recorded stories of the ancient Canaanite gods, stories that resemble the myths found in Ugaritic sources.
This monograph provides an English translation of Philo's Greek text with an introduction and notes. Horgan Apr - Catholic Biblical Association Among the Hebrew documents recovered from the Qumran caves are eighteen texts distinguished by the fact that each is a continuous commentary on or an interpretation of a single biblical book. The documents that are extant preserve portions of commentaries on the book of Psalms and on the And toward the canon of the Scriptures and traces the stages in Jerome's abandonment of the primacy of the Septuagint.
One of the most important accomplishment of this work is Braverman's discussion of Jerome's commentary on the story of Susanna and the It addresses the question why the ancients understood parables as mysterious speech. The study disputes the binary opposition of clear parables and obscure allegories. Defining allegory as an extended metaphor in narratory form, it argues that many parables are allegories.
The parable is defined as narrative in form; tropical in mode of meaning; religious or ethical in genre; and rhetorical in purpose, intended to persuade. Matthew A Scribe Trained for the Kingdom of Heaven Lamar Cope Apr - Catholic Biblical Association This book is an inquiry into the possibility and consequences of a controlled investigation of the work of one of the gospel writers. This study revolves around the use of the OT by the author of the Gospel of Matthew. Coats Feb - Catholic Biblical Association This short learned book orients around the overarching question of context for the Joseph story in Genesis.
It focuses specifically on structural and theological context. Its goal is to illumine the unique position of the Joseph story in the Pentateuch, yet to explore whether the story has any firm rootage in Pentateuchal theology that would undergird its position.
Ambrozic Aug - Catholic Biblical Association The purpose of this study, which is primarily a redaction-critical inquiry, is to examine all of Mark's references to the kingdom and thus to arrive at an understanding of the idea that he has of it. The book is divided into 5 chapters: 1 passages proclaiming the kingdom and its hidden presence, 2 the mysterious activity of the kingdom among men, 3 the ethical demands of the kingdom, 4 the liturgical celebration in Nov - Catholic Biblical Association.
Recipients of Revelation listened to it, and heard it like other oral performances. In the ancient Near East, the distinction between the divine realm and the material world was not always clear. Aug - Catholic Biblical Association. Exploring Biblical Kinship honors John J. Feb - Catholic Biblical Association.
The regnal formulas in Kings list the name of the king's mother for Judah, signaling an importance of her position and place within the books' theological presentation. This collection presents new research in angelology, giving special attention to the otherworldly beings known as the Watchers who are able to move between heaven and earth. Mar - Catholic Biblical Association. In this book, we explore the aim, expressions and outcomes of God's anger in the Hebrew Bible.
Conflicts at creation: Genesis in dialogue with the Psalter
The author explored sections on gatekeepers, treasures and tax collectors from the book of Chronicles in order to examine whether the selected passages can be used as a source to reconstruct the temple administration in the post-exilic period. May - Catholic Biblical Association. The four canticles of Luke's birth story — the Magnificat, Benedictus, Gloria in excelsis, and Nunc dimittis — are taken to be integral components of the narrative and a sustained lyrical prelude to the author's two-volume historical work.